Friday 30 November 2012

Law and Profit

THE GALLERIES AT THE CENTRAL CRIMINAL COURT. The person who has hithero rented the galleries from the Sheriffs at the rate of £21 per session, refused, at the last session, to continue to pay that sum any longer, alledging that it exceeded the receipts. The Sheriffs took the opportunity thus offered in making new regulations, which came into operation on Monday last, and now a uniform charge of 1s. each for admission is established. They have been occasions when half a guinea, and even a guinea, has been demanded. The receipts in the Old Court gallery on Monday amounted to 2s.; in the New Court gallery to 9s.; the Old Court gallery on Tuesday yielded 18s.; and on Thursday £2 10s. The money-takers receive 7s. a day.

Illustrated London News, 6 January 1849

Thursday 29 November 2012

Counting Urinals in the City of London

I found this marvellous table yesterday, showing the location of every urinal in the City of London, 1849. I know. I need help.

I have now mapped it, too.

View Public Urinals in City of London, 1849 in a larger map

Situation of Urinal Description of Premises in which Urinal is attached If be Commissioners of Sewers If by a Publican If by other persons Persons having charge of urinals If communicating with sewer If water laid on If closed or open at night No of persons
urinal will accommodate at one time
1. Acorn Street, Bishopsgate Public House -- yes -- Publican yes no open 1
2. Bucklesbury against Public House in Ch. Yd. -- yes -- Publican yes no open 1
3. Botolph Alley Public House -- yes -- Publican yes yes open 1
4. Bury Street Dead Wall of Warehouse yes -- -- Commission yes no open 1
5. Bride Lane Under Church Yard yes -- -- Commission yes yes open 4
6. Bath Street Warehouse Yard yes -- -- Commission yes no open 1
7. Boars Head Court Public House -- yes -- Publican no no open 1
8. Bristow Street Public House -- yes -- Publican no no open 1
9. Black Swan Alley, St. Paul's Church Yard Public House -- yes -- Publican yes no open 1
10. Bear Alley Public House -- yes -- Publican no no open 1
11. Bridgwater Place Public House -- yes -- Publican no no open 1
12. Britannia Place Public House -- yes -- Publican no no open 1
13. Castle Court, Lawrence Lane Dead Wall yse -- -- Commission yes no open 1
14. Coopers Row Under Railway yes -- -- Commission yes no open 1
15. Church Court, Fenchurch Street Public House -- yes Publican yes yes open 1
16. Cree Church Lane Dead Wall, Public House yes -- -- Commission yes no open 1
17. Cross Key Square Public House -- yes -- Publican yes no open 1
18. Dove Court, Old Jewry Public House -- yes -- Publican yes no open 1
19. Dolphin Court, Fleet St. Dead Wall, Public House -- yes -- Publican no no open 1
20. Excise Office, Bishopsgate St. Excise Office -- -- Excise Office Excise yes no closed 5
21. Fyefoot Lane Warehouse Wall yes -- -- Commission yes no open 1
22. Fitcherts Court, Noble Street Public House -- yes -- Publican yes no open 1
23. Freeman's Court, Cheapside Public House -- yes -- Publican no no open 1
24. Fleur de lis Court Dead Wall yes -- -- Commission yes no open 1
25. Farringdon Market In Market -- -- Market office Markets Committee yes no open 1
26. Fleet Prison Dead wall of street -- -- City Lands Committee City Lands Committee yes yes open 4
27. French Ordinary Court Railway arch yes -- -- Commission yes no open 1
28. George Yard, Snowhill Public House -- yes -- Publican no no open 1
29. Guildhall Yard (front) Guildhall -- -- City Lands Committee City Lands Committee yse yes open 2
30. Guildhall Yard (back) Guildhall -- -- City Lands Committee City Lands Committee yes yes closed 2
31. Great Swan alley Blank Wall yes -- -- Commission yes no open 1
32. Hanging Sword alley Public House -- yes -- Publican yes no open 1
33. Heneage Lane Public House -- yes -- Publican no no open 1
34. Houndsditch Public House -- yes -- Publican no no open 1
35. Jacobs Well Passage Public House -- yes -- Publican no no open 1
36. King's Head Court, Pudding Lane Public House -- yes -- Publican yes no open 1
37. Leadenhall Buildings Public House yes -- -- Commission yes no open 1
38. Leadenhall Market Dead Wall -- yes Markets Committee Markets Committee yes no open 4
39. London House Yard Dead Wall -- yes -- Publican yes no open 1
40. Lothbury Bank of England -- yes Gov. and Co. Bank of England Bank yes no closed 2
41. Mansion house Place Under Mansion House -- yes City Lands Committee City Lands Committee yes yes open 2
42. Montague Court Little Britain Public House -- yes -- Publican no no open 1
43. Mitre Square Church Wall yes -- -- Commission yes no open 1
44. Northumberland Alley Wall of warehouse yes -- -- Commission no no open 1
45. Newgate Market by shambles -- yes Markets Committee Markets Committee yes yes open 3
46. Norwich Court Fetter Lane Public House -- yes -- Publican no no open 1
47. New Union Street Public House -- yes -- Publican yes no open 1
48. Old Bailey In carriageway yes -- -- Commission yes yes closed 6
49. Pitchers Court Dead Wall yes -- -- Commission yes no open 1
50.Printing House Yard Wall yes -- -- Commission yes no open 1
51. Princes St. Sparrow Corner Public House -- yes -- Publican no no open 1
52. Seething Lane Warehouse Wall yes -- -- Commission yes no open 1
53. St. Dunstans Alley Public House yes -- -- Commission yes no open 1
54. Smithfield Market Sheep pens -- -- Markets Committee Markets Committee yes no open 4
55. Shoe Lane Church Yard wall yes -- -- Commission yes no open 2
56. St. Dunstans Court, Fleet Street Public House -- yes -- Publican no no open 1
57. Ship Yard, Little Bridge Street Public House -- yes -- Publican no no open 1
58. Sun Court, Cloth Fair Public House -- yes -- Publican no no open 1
59. St. Paul's Cathedral Church Yard -- -- Dean and Chapt. St. Paul's Dean and Chapt. St. Paul's yes no closed 4
60. Star Court, Bread Street hill Wall of Warehouse -- yes -- Publican no no open 1
61. Sugar Loaf Court, Garlick Hill Public House -- yes -- Publican no no open 1
62. Temple Lane Public House -- yes -- Publican no no open 1
63. Three Falcon Court Public House -- yes -- Publican no no open 1
64. Talbot Court Public House -- yes -- Publican yes no open 1
65. Thames Street East side London Bridge yes -- -- Commission yes no open 1
66. Thames Street West side London Bridge yes -- -- Commission yes no open 1
67. Thames Street Calverts Tap House -- yes -- Publican yes no open 2
68. Threadneedle Street Royal Exchange -- -- Gresham Committee Gresham Committee yes yes open 3
69. Vine Street Public House -- yes -- Publican no no open 1
70. White Lion Court, Tower Street Public House yes -- -- Commission yes no open 1
71.  Waterman's Alley Public House -- yes -- Publican yes no open 1
72. Wilderness Lane Public House -- yes -- Publican no no open 1
73. White Street Cripplegate Dead Wall -- yes -- Publican yes no open 1
74. Waterside by Swan Lane Warehouse Wall -- yes -- Publican yes no open 1

Total Number of Urinals By whom erected If communicating with sewer If water laid on If closed or open at night Number of persons urinal will accommodate
yes no yes no yes no
22 Commissioners of Sewers 21 1 2 20 21 1 31
9 Corporation Committees 9 6 3 7 2 28
1 Bank of England 1 1 1 2
1 Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's 1 1 1 4
1 Excise Office 1 1 1 5
40 Publicans 17 23 2 38 40 41
[74 [total] Totals: 50 24 10 64 68 6 111

Here's the context, a bit long and tedious, but we learn that the first public water-closet in London was actually in Poultry, in c.1830 ... anyone beat that?


To the Honourable Commissioners of Sewers of the City of London
Sewers Office, Guildhall, March 5 1850

"Public Urinals"

    I have taken the first available time to complete a Report, which was commenced twelve months ago, and which I now have the honor to submit to you, upon the subject of Public Urinals.

    The subject is one of very considerable importance, for its is a question of comfort to the large throng of human beings who daily traverse the streets of the City of London.
    It is a subject in which every man must be interested, for there are few, I apprehend, who have not occasionally experienced the inconvenience of those urinals which exist, and the frequent inconvenience of their absence, I speak of the metropolis generally; and I believe the medical profession could recount many instances where (for nature will not be thwarted with impunity) serious and long continued illness has resulted from the want of them.
     I submit also that it is a question of decency, for although a man of delicate mind may have a repugnance to use situations which, from their publicity and otherwise, are manifestly unfit for such a purpose, yet it is impossible to traverse the streets if the metropolis without its being obvious that such is not the condition of every person's feeling; and I believe that to the want of  such public conveniences, much outrage is committed against deceny, cleanliness and morality -  for which nuder existing circumstances it must be allowed there is some show of excuse; but for which there could be none, if in proper situations a sufficient number of Public Urinals were erected.
    Indeed, I believe their necessity is indisputable and will be admitted by all, for it needs but slight observation to perceive how inadequate to the wants of the population are the present number in existence even in the City of London, which is in this respect as may be seen from the appendix already provided with a [167] considerable number and the principal if not the only difficulty attendant upon the erection of a sufficient number is the choice of situations.
    I have deemed it expedient in the first place to direct your attention to the urinals at present existing within the City, and to make suggestions with the view of rendering them as perfect as circumstances will permit, before commencing the consideration of the erection of additional ones.
    In pursuance of this, I have collated and arranged in a tabular form, a state of the whole of the Public Urinals at present existing within the City of London, shewing their situation, extent of accommodation, drainage, water supply, and such other information as I thought might be useful, and beg herewith to submit the same.
    The Urinals upon the Bridges being beyond your jurisdiction I have not included in the list.
    By the tabulated statement it will be seen that the total number of urinals within the City is 74, and the total number of persons that can be accommodated by them at one time is 111. This number includes all that can be generally used by the public and are accessible from the street, without going through private property to arrive at them, whether trhey have been erected by public bodies, private persons, or by this Commission.
    Strictly speaking, perhaps those alone are Public Urinals which have been erected by this Commission, and dedicated by them to the public use; but as it was my wish to ascertain what accommodation actually existed to which the public could have access at all times, and as those erected by the public bodies and private persons upon the public way are accessible naerly at all times to the public, I have included them in the list submitted, as they certainly form a large portion of the total amount of general accommodation.
    For the same reason I ahve included in the list the urinals in St. Paul's Church Yard, in the Court Yard of the Excise Office, and in the land at the back of the Guildhall, in as much as all of them are accessible to the public during the businses hours of the day, and are extensively used.
    By far the largest portion included in this total number been erected by publicans against their own permises, and scarcely deserve the name of urinals, for the most part they each consist simply of one screen stone, which generally fulfills the office of its designation very imperfectly, and they are almost universally deficient in drainage and water supply. they have principally been placed in their present situations, not because such situations were those which were the best that could have been selected for the use of the general public, but most frequently because the publican found that by erecting them he prevented far greater nuisance against his own premises; but in some cases, indeed, because it was evident that the public considered the situation appropriate, treated it accoridngly, and they therefore quickly became places of habitual resort.
   Out of this total number of 74 Urinals, 22 have been erected by this Commission in various public situations; 40 by Publicans, generally against their own premises; 9 by various Committees of the Corporation; 1 by the Company of the Bank of England; 1 by the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's; and 1 bvy the Commissioners of Excise.
    Of the 22 which have been erected by the Commission and are under its immediate control, 21 are drained into the public sewer,1 is undrained, 2 have water supply, 20 have none.
    I have but to suggest in reference to thse, that the 1 which is undrained should at once be made to communicate with the public sewers, and that a constant water supply be at once given to the 20 which have it not.
    [168] Of the 8 erected by the Committees of the COrporation in the markets and other places, all are drained into the Sewers, and but 3 have no water. I beg to suggest that their attention be drawn to the expediency of providing water to the same forthwith.
    The one erected by the Bank of England is drained but has no water supply, but is well attended too, kept properly clean, and is a great public accommodation; another one near the same spot (for the erection of which a suitable situation exists adjacently) would be an additional boon to the public and one much needed in that situation. I beg to suggest that respresentation be made to the Company of the bank to this effect, and also as to the expediency of their providing a water supply to the one already in existence.
    The Urinals in St. Paul's Church Yard are drained, but water is not laid on to them; the Urinals are however but little known, they are removed some distance from the line of traffic, and little used, slight inconvenience therefore arises from the want of water; but I think it desirable that water should be supplied to them and beg to suggest that the attention of the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's be drawn to the same.
    The Urinal in the Court Yard of the Excise Office is drained but it is not supplied with water; it is however frequently washed and kept in every respect in good condition, but a constant supply of water is nevertheless desirable.
    Of the remaining number of 40 which are attached to public houses, 17 are drained, and 23 are undrained; but two have water supply, 38 have no water supply. Drainage and water supply which are so needful to the other urinals are doubly so to those attached to Public House, for they are much used, and are for the most part in situations where from their publicity the want of such appliances is most severely felt, and I therefore beg to suggest that such should be at once made imperative.
    I now arrive at a point far more difficult of disposal, viz. the recommendation of additional urinals, and the situations where they should be erected; this is indeed a difficulty owing to an almost universal repugnance among persons to have them in their own vicinities; for those who, as a principle, would advocate their erection frequently have the greatest objection to their being placed near to them, even although in some cases their walls are daily defiled for want of them.
    The difficulty attending their establishment is increased by the necessary limitation to the privacy of such public conveniences for to be of use they must be easy of access, and be readily found, and to prevent improper usage of them they require to be under the general eye of the public as well as of the guardians of the peace and decency.
    Their necessity, however, being conceded, and those conditions as to choice of situation and structure being imperative, all that remains to be done is to select impartially such situations as will give the greatest general benefit to the public at the same time striving in their selection and construction to give as little individual or local annoyance as possible.
     I have not thought it needful at present to particularise places for their erection, as until the adoption of the general principle suggested in my report, such appeared to me to be premature. I will however submit such classes of situations as by their nature appear to me to be those in which they might be erected with advantage to the public and with as little offence as possible.
    Firstly The vicinities of cabstands appear to me to be suitable for their erection, as the cabs themselves will form upon one side a species of screen, and as there is always a certain amount [169] of bustle and traffic in connexion with a cab stand, the eye and mind would both be diverted from the associations connected with the urinals; besides which there is much nuisance perpetrated near cab stands by the drivers especially; which at prseent cannot but be highly offensive to the inhabitants in their localities, and which would be obviated by the erection of Urinals adjacent to them.
    The Urinal at the Northern end of the Old Bailey designed by the my predecessor (Mr. Kelsey) furnishes  a good illustration as regards situation and construction of the subject matter reported on; it is I am sure a great public benefit, and I think offensive to no one.
    Secondly I think that public buildings should have them erected within their precincts. A highly convenient Urinal is now in existence within the Court Yard of the Excise Office; and Bartholomew Hospital, the Post Office, Custom House, East India House and public buildings genearlly have for the most part room for similar accommodation. All such buildings owing to the large number of male persons constantly in personal communication with them are situations where they might be placed with the greatest public advantage; and I beg to sugegstion that representation to such effect should be made to the proper authorities by this Commission which I cannot doubt would be favourably received, and be acted upon in all cases where special circumstances might not interfere to prevent.
    Thirdly Whenever new streets are in course of formation situations might genearlly be found where they could be placed with advantage; and if constructed before the erection of houses in the line of street, no complaint could be lodged of inconvenience or nuisance being brough to the inhabitants of the locality as the reverse would be the case, for the inhabitants would go to the nuisance (if nuisance it was) which I do not apprehend it would necessarily be.
    Fourthly The sides of the Bridges which in some instances have them already; they are however insufficient in number, defective in construction, and capable of much improvement as the locality is highly favourable to the erection of such public conveniences. The Bridges are without the jurisdiction of this Commission, but ithin that of the Corporation and it cannot be for a moment doubted that the Honourable Committee to whom are delegated the care and supervision of the Bridges would at the representation of this Committee perform everything requisite to make them as perfect as their situation admits of.
    There is yet another species of situation where they might be constructed with the greatest advantage viz. upon the sites of the existing church yards, out of which alone I think I could name sufficient situations eminently adapted for such a purpose as would nearly suffice with those already in existence for the portion of the metropolis under your jurisdiction.
    It is much to be desired that the time when intramural interments shall cease is close at hand; when therefore they shall be among the things which were, the surface of the present churchyards might be levelled to proper inclinations. The tombstones might be laid horizontally so as to form paving slabs, which would thus still fulfil their intention of marking the resting places of those gone before us, and the intermediate spaces be filled in with paving, so as to form an uniform, even and non-absorbent surfacel or what appears to me still better, the head stones might be laid as before suggested and the intermediate spaces after having a proper stratum of earth over them, might be planted with various handy plants and shrubs which could be maintained at but a trifling annual expense after the first outlay; indeed, I should thnik the future annual maintenance might be less than the present cost of cultivating the rank unwholesome looking straggling grass which is annualy sown in many of the churchyards; then when these open spaces have become a source of health instead of disease  [170] there appears to me no reasonable objection to the further extensions of their benefits by the allotment of small portions of their sites to the establishment of public urinals.
    Generally, with regard to public urinals, whether now existing or in future to be constructed, their sitse having been carefully selected so as to give the greatest possible public benefit, I propose that they should be constructed in the best manner, that they should be well drained, ventilated, and lighted and have a copious and constant supply of water; their exterior should be as ornamental as circumstances or propriety would admit; they should be as much screened as is safely practical both by their design and by establishing around them pitching blocks for porters &c.; should be carefully inspected and cleansed every day, and in brief everything should be done which can render them a public benefit with as little attendant inconvenience as possible.
    With the existing arrangemenst of Urinals nothing so conduces to their cleanliness and freedom from offence as a constant and copious water supply; whatever argument may be used in favor of a system of cisternage for domestic purposes cannot apply to public urinals, besides which it is almost imposslbe in many cases to fix cisterns and the necesasry apparatus and I am strongly of opinion that water be running through the urinals both night and day, unless other means can be adopted whereby the same effect can be obtained.
    I again refer to the Public Urinals at the Northern end of the Old Bailey erected by this Commission; as an illustration of the type of the class I would erect modified according to circumstances of locality &c. and I believe that upon this model having certain improvements in the material forming their interiors, which frecent introductions would enable to be made, they might be constructed so as to leave very little to be desired.
    I here beg to call to the recollection of your Honorable Court that an Urinal, a fac simile of , and prepared at the same time as that existign at the Northern end of the Old Bailey , was originally intended to have been placed at the Southern end of Farringdon Street, but which for certain reasons was not; this urinal has been every since that period and still is lying at the City Stone Yard, quite ready for immediate erection in any suitable situation.
    It will be pereceived that the forgoing suggestions have reference to Urinals as under existing circumstances in which good drainage and a copious and constant supply of water are treated as absolte essentials to their decency and cleanliness.
    But in advocating the extension of Public Urinals, although obliged to state that which appears to me to be thie proper structural and other arrangements (as necessary under existing conditions) I think it expedient before quitting the subject to allude to that which appeared a more than probable arrangement of them, at some future (perhaps not far distant) period as well as to do my best, by setting before you such information as I am able to expedite and further such future arrangements, believing as I do that it will conduce to the general good.
    Of the value as manure of Human Excreta both solid and liquid when collected in an undiluted and concentrated state, it is now almost superfluous to dilate; very few are now skeptical upon that point, the labors of the great Sir Humphrey Davey and more recently of the illustrious Liebig, of Spengel, Bossingeult, Johnston, Paulet and others have by chemical analyses separated its constituents and shewn theoretically its probably worth; its applicant at Edinboro', Mansfield and Manchester has practically and irrefutably proved its agricultural value; and the large sums which ahve been for a long period annually realised by its convention and sale by the municipalities of some of the Towns upon the Continent are indisputable and well authenticated facts. Paris alone receives 800,000 [171] francs per annum by the sale of the excreta of its population, whislt in Belgium its sale realises £1.17.0 per head per annum; these with other instances sufficiently testify its commercial value when thus collected and disposed of. The sum named also as realised at Paris appears to me as I gather from the Pamphlet of Parent Duchatelet in his work "Hygiene Publique" and from other writers to be realised by the sale of the excreta so unscientifically manipulated in its convention into Manure, that a very large portion of its most valuable ingredients are lost partly by evaporation and by the expulsion and rejection of the liquid fecula.
    The researches of the eminent agricultual chemists named, and of others who have also added their quota to the general fund of knowledge have proved that such mode of manipulation is absolute waste, and that liquid dejecta of human beings is equally valuable as a manure, if not more so than the solid, and that when properly heated and applied it becomes one of the most valuable known fertilising agents.
     The system adopted in England of storing the excreta of the population in Cesspools which bore some analogy to the Continental system of fosses d'aisances inasmuch as both required periodical emptying, the former however being permeable whilst the latter is impermeable. being now exploded in this Country, and the modern system of sewage and removing the exuviae of the population by the agency of running water bidding fair by is rapid extension soon to entirely destroy any similitude between the continental system and our own, will at the same time prevent in this conutry the storage of soil and the power of obtaining human faeces in an undiluted condition, excepting perhaps in the Country or from large establishments under peculiar arrangements.
    Without venturing upon the much debated question of the relative values of liquid and solid manure, I think it will be conceded that even if the value of the former mode of application was proven to be decidedly superior, that even if the whole of the land within a radius of many miles of the metropolis was in proper condition as to drainage to receive it, and the whole of the cultivators of the soil ready to apply it and pay for it (all most important considerations) yet that many years must elapse before the exuviae of this metropolitan population could be profitably applied as a liquid even if the whole of it could ever be; and if we admit thus much, we also must admit that there will always be much waste of them, which if differently collected would be of considerable value.
    Under such circumstances, and with the knowledge of the value and conventability of human faeces when undiluted, it appears to me that effort should be made to save so valuable a fertilising agent from waste wherever it can be effected, without by its retention inflicting injury upon the sanitary condition of the locality, this under modern domestic arrangements alluded to and with recent evidence as to the insaulbrity of thestorage in and removal from premises of human excreta cannot be effected, but it appears to me that it would be perfectly practical to save and remove, without injury of nuisance, the daily deposition from the Public Urinals.
   To form some estimate of the probable deposition from the Public Urinals within the City, I have had observations made of the avearge use of certain of them, which may serve as a basis for present calculation as well as for general refernce should the question be at some future day the subject of consideration or proposal.


Table of Observations shewing the number of persons using certain Public Urinals within the City of London, between the hours of 8 o'clock a.m. and 6 o'clock p.m.

During 2 hour ending at
Old Bailey Nov.5 1849 accomm. 6 persons
Shoe Lane Nov. 6 1849 accomm. 2 persons
Mansion House, Nov 7 1849 accomm.2 persons
Royal Exchange Nov.8 1849 accomm. 3 persons
Seething Lane, Nov 9 1849 accomm. 1 person)
Bank Nov 1 1849 accomm. 2 persons
Thames St. W. Nov 12 1849 accomm. 1 person
Thames St. E. Nov. 13 1849 accomm. 1 person
Total Number per hour at the Urinal
9 am
 Not open
12 noon
1 pm
Total with hours ending at 6pm

Summary of Foregoing Observations

Urinal at No. of persons capable of being accommodated at one time Used in ten hours terminating at 6.40pm by persons
1 Old Bailey 6 2011
2 Shoe Lane 2 987
3 Mansion House 2 895
4 Royal Exchange 3 1497
5 Seething Lane 1 296
6 Bank 2 949
7 Thames St.  West of London Bridge 1 758
8 Thames St East of London Bridge 1 879
Total 18 8269

Thus it will be seen that 8 urinals capable of accommodatign 18 people at the same time, were during ten of the busy hours of the day, used by no less than 8269 times.
    Nothing that I could have urged, nothing that I could possibly have set forth to your Honorable Court, as to the advantages of such constructions could have demonstrated their utility plainly as this intelligible fact.
    If we follow up these observations by calculation and assume (which may fairly be done) that during 12 hours per diem there 8 urinals accommodating 18 persons are used at the same average rate given by the observations, namely 46 per accommodation per hour, the number of times they are used per diem will be 9,936; per week 69,552; or per annum 3,616,704.
    Now, the total number of persons capable of being accommodated in the City at the same time as shewn by the appended table of public urinals is 111, but the majority of them are not so much used in a given space of time as those which I have chosen for observation; they are however used for a much longer period than 12 hours per diem but assuming that each of the other urinals are used upon an average for 12 hours per diem and at the average rate only of two thirds of the number of persons shewn by the observations to use the other urinals per hour the number of times they will be used will be per diem of 12 hours 32,224; per week 239,568; per annum 12,457,536.
And thus the total number of times that the whole of the Public Urinals of the City of London amy be assumed to be used is per day of 12 hours 44,160; per week 309,120; per annum 16,074,240.
     [173] Human urine is now used in various manufacturign processes and possesses in that respect a certain value although I am not aware that for such objects money is ever made by its sale; but referring again t othe agricultural value of human excreta, human urine is known to possess soluble mineral constituents not found in the solid faeces. Professor Liebig states that in the culture of certain vegetables it is the most powerful manure known, and for general use I believe it ranks higher than most animal manures; it is capable of being manipulated in various ways, and can always be applied with advantage, whatever its mode of treatment; its monetary value has generally been received as stated by Professor Johnson who assigns six shillings as the usual value, as manure of the urine of each individual. It is probable, however, that this value, assigned by comparison with the prices of the various artificial manures of the day, it may be exceedingly difficult to realise, at all events at present, besides which its cost of conversion and transport must materially tend to reduce this stated value.
    It is no, however, needful for me here to progress further with enquiry into the question of its value beyond stating that at the value assigned by Professor Johnson the annual value of the urine collected to be deposited at the Public Urinals within the City may be estimated at about £2200.
    I think that the estimated usage of the Public Urinals although approximately is still considerably beneath the actual usage and am also of opinion that be the erection of additional ones their usage may in time be double that of their present usage, and that the value of the deposition at them according to the before mentioned would arrivew closely at £4000 per annum.
    I have brought this before your Honorable Court because that I believe persons will be found who would not only take charge of the Urinals free of expense, but would pay you for the right of using the urine; such is no new idea, it has been proposed to you at various times, the last time about 5 years since but the applicant damaged his case by proposign to turn the lamp posts along Cheapside into urinals, in somewhat the same way as those in the Boulevards at Paris with other good intentions, which neither your mind nor the public were prepared to receive, and therefore the consideration dropped; more recently a somewhat similar application has been made to you by Mr. D'Angely, the subject has alos recently been reported upon by one of the Officers of the Metropolitan Commission, who suggests the formation of a company to form Public Urinals.
    Public opinion has changed and is still changing upon this subject and I think that the establishment of additional public urinals would be conferring a great benefit upon the community, and may also become the means of returning to the soil a large quantity of valuable fertilizing matter at present worse than thrown away.
    I believe that public mind is also changing as regards the propriety of constructing Public Water Closets; one was experimentally erected about the year 1830 in the Poultry, but I believe that, as as communal speculation, as well as in every point of view it proved a failure. Continental intercourse of late years has, however, effected I think an attenuation of public feeling upon this point and I am disposed to think that their construction will ultimately taken place and that they will, like urinals, be considered a public benefit.
    I have the honor to be,
                Your most obedient servant,
                      William Haywood,